ملاحظاتی برای سیاستگذاری حقوقی قراردادهای هوشمند

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار حقوق خصوصی مؤسسه حقوق تطبیقی دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد حقوق خصوصی دانشگاه علوم قضایی

چکیده

توسعه تجارت الکترونیکی منجر به ایجاد سه نسل از قراردادهای الکترونیکی از قراردادهای مبتنی بر امضائات باینری تا قراردادهای داده گرا و قراردادهای هوشمند شده است. این تحقیق با توجه به روش اسنادی به دنبال پاسخ به این است که مفهوم قراردادهای هوشمند چه بوده و اساساً این قراردادها معتبر تلقی می شوند؟ ویژگی خوداجرایی در این قراردادها به چه معناست و چه نقشی در توسعه نظام مبادلاتی دارد؟ آیا قواعد عمومی حاکم بر قراردادها می تواند پاسخگوی نیازهای این دسته قراردادها باشد؟ این تحقیق با مطالعه تطبیقی حقوق امریکا به دنبال بیان این مطلب است که این قراردادها با توجه به دارابودن ویژگی خوداجرایی، نسبت به اجرای مفاد قرارداد بدون دخالت فرد سوم و اعمال ضمانت اجراهای عدم انجام تعهدات قراردادی اقدام و این ویژگی باتوجه به دارابودن خصوصیت افزایش امنیت، کاهش هزینه و افزایش سرعت و دقت در انعقاد معاملات منجر به توسعه نظام مبادلاتی می گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


1- شریعت باقری، محمد جواد، (1395)، حقوق بین الملل خصوصی، چاپ اول، تهران، انتشارات میزان.

2- صفایی،سید حسین،(1392)، دوره مقدماتی حقوق مدنی، جلد دوم، چاپ هفدهم، تهران، انتشارات میزان.

3- صمدی سعید، نصر اللهی خدیجه، کرمعلیان سیچانی مرتضی،(1386)، بررسی رابطه بین توسعه بازارهای مالی و رشد اقتصادی، فصلنامه پژوهش های اقتصادی، شماره سوم، سال ششم، ص1-16.

4- کاتوزیان،ناصر،(1384)،دوره مقدماتی حقوق مدنی،اعمال حقوقی(قرارداد-ایقاع)،چاپ دهم،تهران،شرکت سهامی انتشار.

5- کربلایی امینی، منا، (1393)، ویژگی های سند رسمی به عنوان سند برتر، ماهنامه کانون، شماره، 136 و 137، ص39-53.

6- Alexander Savelyev,(2016) Contract Law 2.0: Smart Contracts As the Beginning of the End of Classic Contract Law, Higher School of Economics Research Paper No. WP BRP 71/LAW/2016 (Dec. 14, 2016), https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/ papers2.cfm?abstract_id=2885241.

7- Alexis Kramer,(2018) More States Eye Blockchain for Records, Business,

BloombergLawhttps://biglawbusiness.com/more-states-eye-blockchain-for-records-businesses/.

8- Anda Lincoln,(2004) ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE LAWS AND THE NEED FOR UNIFORMITY IN THE GLOBAL MARKET, THE JOURNAL OF SMALL & EMERGING BUSINESS LAW.

9- Annaliese Milano, (2018)California Bill Would Legally Recognize Blockchain Data,CoinDesk

https://www.coindesk.com/california-lawmaker-files-bill-legally-recognize-blockchain-data/.

10- Arizona House Bill 2417, https://legiscan.com/AZ/text/HB2417/id/1588180.

11- Benjamin Channing Palmer(2005) Disparate Impact of Electronic Signature Legislation on Indigent Californians, McGeorge Law Review, Vol. 36.

12- Brett M. Frischmann & Evan Selinger, Engineering Humans with Contracts,(2018) Cambridge

universitypress,https://philpapers.org/rec/FRIRHhttps://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers2.cfm?abstract_id=2834011.

13- CaliforniaAssemblyBill2658(introducedFeb.16,2018),https://legiscan.com/CA/text/AB2658/2017.

14- CARLA L. REYES,(2018), More Legal Aspects of Smart Contract Applications, Token Sales, Capital Markets, Supply Chain Management, Government and Smart Cities,Real Estate Registries, and Enabling Self-Sovereign Identity, Perkins Coie Publishers, downloaded from Social science and research network.

15- Carla L. Reyes,(2017), Conceptualizing Cryptolaw, NEBRASKA LAW REVIEW,Vol96.

16- Christopher D. Clack, Vikram A. Bakshi ,Lee Braine ,(2017) Smart Contract Templates: foundations, design landscape and research directions, Downloaded from https://www.ssrn.com.

17- Chu Yang, Ream John, Schatsky David, (2016), Getting Smart About Smart Contracts, CFO Insights, Deloitte University Press, Downloaded From HEINONLINE.

18- David Wu et al,(2017) Privacy, Discovery, and Authentication for the Internet of

Things(unpublishedmanuscript),https://crypto.stanford.edu/~dwu4/papers/PrivateIoTFull.pdf.

19- DistributedLedgerTechnologyasPrescribed(introducedJan.8,2018).https://nebraskalegislature.gov/bills/view_bill.php?DocumentID=33913.

20- Farnsworth E. Allan, (1987).Precontractual Liability and Preliminary Agreements: Fair Dealing and Failed Negotiations, COLUM. Law. REV,Vol87.

21- Florian Glatz,(2016) How We Use Smart Contracts at SatoshiPay to Change the

Internet’sEconomyForever.Today!,MEDIUM,https://medium.com/@heckerhut/how-we-use-smart-contracts-atsatoshipay-to-change-the-internet-s-economy-forever-today-777988a868d.

22- Florida House Bill 1357, https://legiscan.com/FL/text/H1357/id/1676376.

23- Gladman Brian, Ellison Carl, Bohm Nicholas,(2000),Digital signatures, Certificates and Electronic Commerce, version1. vol1.

24- Hong Kong Special Autonomous Region, Electronic Transactions Ordinance,

Ord.(2000)No.1of2000unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN010238.pdf,2000Jamie Lewis, Law Alone Won''t Pave Way for Digital IDs; It Takes Practice, INTERNETWEEK, July 17, 2000 at 31, available at 2000 WL 8232850.

25- https://www.benzinga.com/markets/binary-options/17/09/10120628/binary-option-contracts-uncomplic.

26- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QR_code.

27- J.E. Stern Note(2001) Federal: legislation: The Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 16.

28- JohnReam,YangChu,DavidSchatsky(2016)UpgradingblockchainsSmartcontractusecasesinindustry,https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/focus/signals-for-strategists/using-blockchain-for-smart-contracts.html.

29- John Stark,(2016) How Close Are Smart Contracts to Impacting Real-World

Law?,CoinDesk,http://www.coindesk.com/blockchain-smarts-contracts-real-worldlaw.

30- Jon Buck,(Updated 2017)Why can’t decentralised applications communicate

withtherealworldwithoutoracles?https://cointelegraph.com/explained/blockchain-oracles-explained.

31- JonMartindale,(2018)WhatisBlockchain,https://www.digitaltrends.com/computing/what-is-a-blockchain.

32- KAREN E. C. LEVY1,(2017) Book-Smart, Not Street-Smart: Blockchain-Based Smart Contracts and The Social Workings of Law, Downloaded From Social Science Research Network.

33- Kehrli,Jerome,(2016) Blockchain 2.0 - From Bitcoin Transactions to Smart Contract applications, Dowmloaded from Social Science Research Networh (www.ssrn.com).

34- Kevin J. Fandl, J.D.,(2016), Cross-Border Commercial Contracts and Consideration, BERKELEY JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, Vol34.

35- Lee Bacon, (2016)Nigel Brook & George Bazinas, “Smart Contracts:” Where LawMeetsTechnology,Clyde&Co ,http://www.clydeco.com/insight/article/smartcontracts-where-law-meets-technology.

36- MarleyGray,(2017)EvolutionofblockchainSmartContractsandCryptletshttps://medium.com/@newgatemarleyg/evolution-of-blockchain-smart-contracts-and-cryptlets-cb22aa978434.

37- MarleyGray,CraigHajduk,(2017)AnatomyofSmartContracts,https://github.com/Azure/azure-blockchain-projects/blob/master/bletchley/AnatomyofASmartContract.md.

38- Max Raskin,(2017) THE LAW AND LEGALITY OF SMART CONTRACTS, GEORGETOWN LAW

TECHNOLOGY REVIEW.

39- Michael Corkery ,Jessica Silver-Greenberg,(2017) Federal Agency Begins Inquiry Into Auto Lenders’ Use of GPS Tracking, N.Y. TIMES, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/19/business/dealbook/gpsdevices-car-loans.html [https://perma.cc/FE6J-RX52].

40- Nebraska LB 695, Authorize and Define Smart Contracts and Authorize Use of.

41- NevadaPassesPro-BlockchainLaw,TheNationalLawReview(June13,2017),https://www.natlawreview.com/article/nevada-passes-pro-blockchain-law.

42- Nevada Senate Bill No. 398 (signed into law by the governor on June 5, 2017),

https://www.leg.state.nv.us/App/NELIS/REL/79th2017/Bill/5463/Overview.

43- NikhileshDe,(2018)FloridaBillWouldLegallyRecognizeBlockchainSignatures,SmartContracts,CoinDesk,https://www.coindesk.com/florida-bill-legally-recognize-blockchain-signatures-smart-contracts.

44- Reggie O''Shields (2017),SMART CONTRACTS: LEGAL AGREEMENTS

FORTHEBLOCKCHAIN,NORTHCAROLINABANKINGINSTITUTE,vol21.

45- Riikka Koulu,(2016) Blockchains and Online Dispute Resolution: Smart Contracts as an Alternative to Enforcement,SCRIPTed, Volume 13.

46- Sanjay Sharma(2014),International Transactionas or Cross Border Transactions,https://www.Linkedin.com.

47- SEGRAVE KERRY,(2002) VENDING MACHINES: AN AMERICAN SOCIAL HISTORY,. First Edition, McFarland and Company Publishers.

48- Shawn Bayern,(2014), OF BITCOINS, INDEPENDENTLY WEALTHY SOFTWARE, AND THE ZERO-MEMBER LLC, N O R T H W E S T E R N  U N I V E R S I T Y  L A W  R E V I E W,Vol108.

49- SKLAROFF JEREMY,(2017), SMART CONTRACTS AND THE COST OF INFLEXIBILITY, University of Pennsylvania Law Review,Vol166.

50- Stan Higgins, (2017)Arizona Governor Signs Blockchain Bill into Law,

CoinDesk,https://www.coindesk.com/arizona-governor-signs-blockchain-bill-law/.

51- Stephen E. Blythe,(2008) Bulgaria''s Electronic Document and Electronic Signature Law: Enhancing E-Commerce with Secure   Cyber-Transactions, BULGARIA''S ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT LAW.

52- STEPHENE.BLYTHE,(2007)Hungary''sElectronicSignatureAct:EnhancingEconomicDevelopmentwithSecureElectronicCommerceTransactions, School of Management, New York Institute of Technology, USA.

53- Sylvia Mercado Kierkegaard,(2007),Electronic contracts Formation: U.S and E.U perspectives, Shidler journal of Law, Commerce and Technology,Vol3.

54- Vitalik Buterin,(Updated 2017) A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform, GITHUB, https://github.com/ethereum/ wiki/wiki/White-Paper [https://perma.cc/F8NP-8EZ6].

55- Werbach Kevin, Cornell Nicolas,(2017), CONTRACTS EX MACHINA, Duke Law Journal,67,downloaded from social science research network.

56- WhatisLegalContracthttps://www.thebalancesmb.com/what-is-a-legal-contract-462462/2018.

57- William A. Tanenbaum,(2000) Paperless Contracts Are Here: State Electronic Signatures and  Records  Act, Enabling Regulations Have Taken Effect, N.Y. L.J.,Downloaded from Social Science Research Network.

58- William Mougayar,(2016) 9 Myths Surrounding Blockchain Smart Contracts, CoinDeskwww.coindesk.com/smart-contract-myths-blockchain/.

59- Wright, De Filippi,(2015), DECENTRALIZED BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY AND THE RISE OF LEX CRYPTOGRAPHIA, Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2580664.