Investigation and Presenting the Model of Factors Affecting Road Transportation Safety Policy

Document Type : Review Article


1 Phd student of Public Administration, Alborz Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor of Public Administration, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 Professor of Planning and Transportation Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


This research intended to obtain a model of factors affecting the formation of general policies for road transportation safety with the help of research conducted in the field of road transportation safety. The type of qualitative research and systematic literature review method. In this regard, 105 articles that had the required validity and quality were deeply examined and based on the open coding method, 350 components were extracted in the form of 114 codes under 27 subcategories (structure) and 6 main categories. The analysis of the findings showed that among these categories, the category of "road safety management" received the most mentions among the reviewed sources, followed by the categories of "safer users" and "safety financial provision". , "Safer road", "Response after an accident", "Safer vehicles" are placed.


  1. Akinlade, O.C., Brieger, W. R. (2004). Motorcycle Taxis And Road Safety In Southwestern Nigeria. Int’l. Quarterly of Community Health Education, 22(1 & 2) 17-31, 2004, Baywood Publishing Co., Inc.
  2. Albalate, D., Fageda, X. (2019). Congestion, Road Safety, and the Effectiveness of Public Policies in Urban Areas. Sustainability, (11), 18, 5092. (DOI:10.3390/su11185092).
  3. Albalawi, Y.A., Sixsmith, J. (2016). Exploring the diffusion of tweets designed to raise the road safety agenda in Saudi Arabia. Global Health Promotion, 24, (4),PP: 5–13. (DOI: 10.1177/1757975915626111)
  4. Aliari, Vadod. (2015). Evaluating the impact of car insurance policies on traffic safety [In Persian]. Master's thesis. Transportation Planning Group. Faculty of Civil Engineering. Tarbiat Modares University.
  5. Aliari, Vadod et al. (2013). A review of the impact of insurance policies on traffic safety. The first national conference on civil engineering, urban planning and sustainable development [In Persian]. Tehran, Farzin Science and Industry Sustainable Development Center, Shahid Beheshti University. Retrieved from: (
  6. Amoran, O.E., et al. (2005). Road Safety Practices Among Commercial Motorcyclists In A Rural Town In Nigeria: Implication For Health Education. Int’l. Quarterly of Community Health Education, 24(1), 55-64. ( (https://journals.
  7. Azari Arani, Qasim, and Rezaei Noor, Jalal. (2018). Identifying effective indicators on the creation of national knowledge, national intelligence and gross domestic product (systematic literature review) [In Persian]. Technology Growth, 14(56), PP. 17-27. Retrieved from: (
  8. Batishcheva, O., Ganichev, A. (2017). Creative Approaches to Organization and Safety of Road Traffic. Transportation Research Procedia, (20). 36 – 40. (12th International Conference "Organization and Traffic Safety Management in large cities", SPbOTSIC-2016, 28-30 September 2016, St. Petersburg, Russia).
  9. Belin, M-A. (2012). Public Road Safety Policy Change and Its Implementation – Vision Zero a Road Safety Policy Innovation. Thesis From the Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Stockholm. Retrived From Website: ( .pdf?sequence=4).
  10. Belin, M.-Å., Tillgren, P., & Vedung, E. (2012). Vision Zero – a road safety policy innovation. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 19(2):171-179. (DOI: 10.1080/17457300.2011.635213).
  11. Belin, M-Å & Tillgren, P (2012) Vision Zero. How a policy Innovation is Dashed by Interest Conflcts, but May prevail in the End, Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, (16), 3,PP. 83-102. Retrived From Website: ( https://www.
  12. Belin, M-A., Tillgren, P., Vedung, E., Cameron, M., Tingvall, C. (2010). Speed cameras in Sweden and Victoria, Australia—A case study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, (42), PP., 2165–2170.(doi:10.1016/j.aap.2010.07.010)
  13. Belin M-A, Tillgren P, Vedung E. (2012). Theory and Practice in Sweden: A Case Study of Setting Quantified Road Safety Targets. J Health Med Informat, (1), PP. 101. (doi:10.4172/2157-7420.1000101).
  14. Bess, M.K. (2016). Neither motorists nor pedestrians obey the rules’: Transit law, public safety, and the policing of Northern Mexico’s roads, 1920s–1950s. The Journal of Transport History, 37(2), 155–174. (DOI: 10.1177/0022526616654700).
  15. Bettany-Saltikov, J. (2012) How to Do a Systematic Literature Review in Nursing: A Step-by-Step Guide. Open University Press, Maidenhead, Berkshire.
  16. Bloomberg, R., Michael. (2011). A Greener,Greater, New York. Retrived from New York City Mayor’s Office of Long-Term Planning and Sustainability website:( planyc/downloads/pdf/publications/planyc_2011_plany_full_report.pdf&http://
  17. Borna, Reza, Mohammadi, Hossein, Tharvati, Mohammad Reza. (2010). Evaluation of accidents and safety of road transport with the approach of climate risks in the Karaj-Chalos axis [In Persian]. Sarzamin Geographical Quarterly, Scientific-Research, 7th, (25), Spring. PP. 53-65. Retrieved from: (
  18. Boroujerdian, Amin Mirza. (2013). Providing a road safety model based on dynamic segmentation and cause-oriented prioritization [In Persian]. Ph.D. Thesis. Road and Transportation Group. Faculty of Engineering. Tarbiat Modares University. Retrieved from: (
  19. Burnard, P. (1991). A method of analysing interview transcripts in qualitative research. Nurse education today, 11(6), 461-466.
  20. Canadian Council of Motor Transportation Administrators. (2016). Canada's Road Safety Strategy 2025. Towards Zero: The Safest Roads in the World. 14. Available at: ( pdf.doi:10.1016/trpro.2016.05.170).
  21. Cohen, A. and Dehejia, R (2003); «The Effect Of Automobile Insurance And Accident Liability Law On Traffic Fatalities», National Bureau Of Economic Research, Working Paper 9602.
  22. Corbett, C., Caramlau, I. (2006). Gender differences in responses to speed cameras: Typology findings and implications for road safety. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 6, (4),: 411-433. (DOI: 10.1177/1748895806068578)
  23. Creswell, J., W. (2016). 30 essential skills for the qualitative researcher. Sage publication, Los angeles.
  24. Daghighi Asli, H (2012); «Effect of Third Party Insurance Risks on Loss of Live and Property (From the prespective of insurance company,s policyholders in Iran, Rasht) », Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, Vol. 4, No. 7: pp.691-700.
  25. Danesh Fard, Karamullah. (2014). Obstacles to the implementation of public policies in non-governmental organizations (police service department +10 and government counter service offices) [In Persian]. Resource management in the police force, (2), 2, PP. 23-50. Retrieved from: (
  26. Danai Fard, H., Thaghafi, E., and Mashbaki Esfahani, A. (2012). Public Policy Implementation: Explaining the Role of Rationality in Policy Formulation.[In Persian], Management Research in Iran, 14(4), 79-106. (
  27. Evenson, K.R., LaJeunesse, S., Heiny, S. (2018). Awareness of Vision Zero among United States' road safety professionals. Injury epidemiology, 5(1),PP. 21. (doi:10.1186/s40621-018-0151-1).
  28. Eyssartier, C., Hamelin, F. (2011). Professional and Community Acceptance of Automated Traffic Enforcement in France. Australian Transport Council. Australasian Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference 2010, Aug 2010, Camberra, Australia. 8p, 2010. (hal- 00615179).( publication/268048775).
  29. Faqihi, Abolhassan, Memarzadeh, Gholamreza, Nazifkar, Hamideh. (2013). Iran's road safety promotion model with an emphasis on safety culture [In Persian]. Management research in Iran, 17, )4(, PP. 161-169. Retrieved from: (
  30. Ghadri, Atefeh. (2015). Investigating the policies and responsibilities of the government in order to increase safety and road transportation in Iranian law [In Persian]. Master's thesis. Law Group. Faculty of Literature and Human Sciences. Semnan University.
  31. Gheisari, F., salajeghe, S., Bigzadeh Abbasi, F., & Sheikhy, A. (2019). Investigating the relationship between the role of actors in formulating a public policy on the implementation of health policies of the administrative system (Case study: Provincial organizations of Khuzestan province).[In Persian], Public Policy In Administration, 10(35), 53-69.(
  32. Grande, Z., Castillo, E., Mora, E., Lo, H.K. (2017). Highway and Road Probabilistic Safety Assessment Based on Bayesian Network Models. Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 32.,PP. 379–396. (DOI: 10.1111/mice.12248). (https://onlinelibrary.
  33. Green, M., Muir, C., Oxley, J., Sobhani, A. (2022). Safe System in road safety public policy: A case study from Victoria, Australia. IATSS Research 46, 171–180. ( 2021.11.006).
  34. Hajipour, Ibrahim, Faruzandeh, Lotfullah, Danai Fard, Hassan, Fani, Asghar. (2015). Designing the pathological model of public policy implementation in Iran [In Persian]. Military Management Quarterly, (15) 58, PP. 1-23. Retrieved from: (
  35. Hamelin, F., Moguen-Toursel, M. (2012). Improving the Links Between Research and Road Safety Policy: the Case of France and England's Speed Management. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, (48), 205-214. ( S1877042812027371).
  36. Hanberger, A., Lundstrom, U., Marald, G. (2013). Local safety policy: The approach of two Swedish cities to urgent safety problems. Public Policy and Administration, 28(4): 383–403. (DOI: 10.1177/0952076713483162)
  37. Higgins, J.P. and Deeks, J.J. (2008). Selecting Studies and Collecting Data. In Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (eds J.P. Higgins and S. Green). 10.1002/9780470712184.ch7.
  38. Hirsch, L., Mackie, H., McAuley, I. (2021). Fatal footsteps: Understanding the Safe System context behind New Zealand’s pedestrian road trauma. Journal of Road Safety , 32(1).
  39. Hough, M., Roberts, J., Jacobson, J. (2008). Attitudes to the sentencing of offences involving death by driving. Criminal law review, London, England. ( publication/237111651_ Attitudes_to_the_sentencing_of_offences_ involving_death_by_driving).
  40. Howlett, M., Mukherjee, I. and Woo, J. J. (2015). From tools to toolkits in policy design studies: The new design orientation towards policy formulation research. Policy and Politics, 43(2), 291–311. (
  41. Huang, L., et al. (2018). Big-data-driven safety decision-making: A conceptual framework and its influencing factors. Safety Science, (109), 46–56. ( (
  42. Hughes, B., Anund, A., Falkmer, T. (2015). System theory and safety models in Swedish, UK, Dutch and Australian road safety strategies. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 74, PP. 271-278. (doi:10.1016/j.aap.2014.07.017).
  43. Hughes, B.P. (2017). A Comprehensive Framework for Future Road Safety Strategies. This thesis is presented for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy of Curtin University. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work. ( 59647/Hughes%20B%202017 .pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y).
  44. Hughes BP, Falkmer T, Anund A, Black MH (2019) The relevance of U.S. Strategic Highway Safety Plans in a future context. PLoS ONE 14(10): e0223646. ( 0223646)
  45. (2016). Zero Road Deaths and Serious Injuries: Leading a Paradigm Shift to a Safe System. Paris. OECD Publishing. Retrived from website: ) RoadSafetyManagement/Resources/Zero_road_deaths-SafeSystems.pdf(.
  46. Jansson, B.(ed.) (2011). Socialmedicin för säkerhets skull. Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, 88(1),
  47. Jansson, B., Ponce de Leon, A., Ahmed, N., Jansson, V. (2006). Why does Sweden have the lowest Childhood injury mortality in the world? The roles of architecture and public pre-school service. Journal of Public Health Policy, 27, PP,146-165.
  48. Johansson, R. (2009). Vision Zero – Implementing a policy for traffic safety. Safety Science, 47(6): 826–831. (
  49. Johnston, I. (2010). Beyond "best practice" road safety thinking and systems management-a case for culture change research. Safety Science, 48(9):1175-1181. (doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2009.12.003).
  50. Jorge Alves, P., Emanuel, L., H M Pereira, R. (2020). The causal effect of road concessions on road safety. (DOI: 10.31235/
  51. Joubert, JC., Fraser, W.J., Sentsho, M.L. (2012). Road Safety Education: A Paradoxical State for Children in a Rural Primary School in South Africa. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 48(2) 209–228. (DOI: 10.1177/0021909612449125).
  52. Jung, S., Qin, X., Oh, C. (2016). Improving strategic policies for pedestrian safety enhancement using classification tree modeling. Transportation Research, Part A, (85), 53–64. (
  53. Katko, T.S. (2006). Road Safety Fatalities, Management, And Policy in FINLAND, 1970-2003. Sage Publications Public, Works Management & Policy, Vol. 11 No. 2, October, 126-138. (DOI: 10.1177/1087724X06294066).
  54. Khademi, N., Choupani, A-A. (2017). Investigating the road safety management capacity: Toward a lead agency reform. IATSS Research. (
  55. Khalili, Morteza, Hajiani, Mehsa. (2016). Evaluation of urban transportation policies of Iran (Study case: analysis of the content of the approvals of the High Traffic Coordination Council of Tehran) [In Persian]. Social and Cultural Strategy Quarterly, Year 5, (19), Summer, PP. 169-190. Retrieved from: (
  56. Knapp, K.K. (2005). Improving Local Roadway Safety With Lessons From Europe. Public Works Management & Policy, 10, (1), July, 69-76. (DOI: 10.1177/1087724X05280381).
  57. Kotnik, Ž., Umek, L., Kovač, P., Stanimirović, D., Vintar, M. (2020). Analysis of the key factors for successful public policy implementation: a qualitative study in Slovenia. DANUBE: Law, Economics and Social Issues Review, 11 (2), 113–140. (DOI: 10.2478/danb-2020-0007).
  58. Kristianssen, A-C., Andersson, R., Belin, M-A., Nilsen, P. (2018). Swedish Vision Zero policies for safety – A comparative policy content Analysis. Safety Science. (103), PP., 260–269. ( publication/323186941).
  59. Laois County Council. (2017). Laois County Council Road Safety Plan 2017 -2022. Laois County Council. (
  60. Latifi, Hesam and Nikofarjam, Mohammad. (2018). Evaluating road transport safety in Iran from the point of view of national and international statistics and providing suggested solutions to improve conditions and financing [In Persian]. 11th International Congress of Civil Engineering. Tehran. University of Tehran.
  61. Li, Ch., Sh., Liub, Ch., Ch. And Peng, Sh., Ch (2013), «Bundled Automobile Insurance Coverage and Accidents», Accident analysis and Prevention, Vol. 50: pp. 64- 72.
  62. Maqbool, Y., Sethi, A., Singh, J. (2019). Road safety and Road Accidents: An Insight (A Comprehensive Study on the Competent Traffic Management of Roads to Reduce Road Accidents in Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India). International Journal of Information and Computing Science, (6), 4. (ISSN NO: 0972-1347). (
  63. Mahpour, Alireza. (2020). Modeling and providing a tool for prioritizing safety corrective actions in suburban arterial axes [In Persian]. Journal of Rahour Research Studies, 9, (35). Retrieved from: (
  64. Marshall, W.E. (2018). Understanding International Road Safety Disparities: Why is Australia so much safer than the United States? Accident Analysis & Prevention. 111, PP. 251-265. (doi:10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.031).
  65. McAndrews, C. (2013). Road Safety as a Shared Responsibility and a Public Problem in Swedish Road Safety Policy. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 38(6) 749-772.(
  66. Mccarthy, P., Tay, R. (2005). Road safety, alcohol and public policy. Transportation Research Part E Logistics and Transportation Review, (41), 5, PP., 373-376.(DOI:10.1016/j.tre.2005.03.006)
  67. Mcgehee, D.V. (2011). The Building Blocks of Driver Distraction Policy. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Ergonomic In  October. (DOI: 10.1177/1064804611419964).
  68. McIlroy, R.C., Banks, V.A., Parnell, K.J. (2022). 25 Years of road safety: The journey from thinking humans to systems-thinking. Applied Ergonomics, 98, 103592. ( 10.1016/ j.apergo.2021.103592)(https://www.sciencedirect. com/science/article/abs/pii/S0003687021002398).
  69. Mehriari, Farhad, Nikofar, Mohammad Hadi and Naderpour, Mohsen. (2005). Safety management system in the road transport industry [In Persian]. the first international conference on traffic and road accidents, Tehran. Retrieved from: (
  70. Mendoza, A.E., Wybourn, C.A., Mendoza, M.A. et al. (2017). The Worldwide Approach to Vision Zero: Implementing Road Safety Strategies to Eliminate Traffic-Related Fatalities. Curr Trauma Rep (3), 104–110. (
  71. Michalis, K., Georgiadis, G., Papaioannou, P., Politis, I. (2020). Toll avoidance at highways and utility of alternative routes; Evidence from highway drivers in Greece. Conference: 99th Transportation Research Board (TRB), Washington DC, USA. (
  72. Ministry of Roads and Transport. (2011). IRAN’s Road Safety Strategic Plan (IRSSP, 2010,2019- 2nd Edition) [In Persian]. second edition. Tehran: Ministry of Roads and Transport - Deputy of Education, Research and Technology - Office of Technology and Safety Studies.
  73. Ministry of Roads and Urban Development. (2020). Document "Decade of Action for Road Safety" in the decade 2021-2030 [In Persian]. Notification No. 02/100/172701 dated 13/12/1399 of the Minister of Roads and Urban Development as the head of the country's Road Safety Commission. Tehran.
  74. Moezni, Ruhollah, and Qadiri, Atefeh (2016). A comparative study of the actions and policies of the British and American governments with the Iranian government in order to increase road safety [In Persian]. The first national conference of Islamic sciences, law and management. Applied Scientific University of Qom Governorate.
  75. Momeni, Iskandar, Hamidi, Mohammad Hossein, Tabashir, Esfandiar, Javadian, Reza. (2018). Evaluating the effect of ITS on the safety of the public road transport fleet using the comparative method of two pairs with the Sepahten system approach [In Persian]. Rahor Scientific Quarterly, (26), Section 7, Fall,PP. 130-99. Retrieved from: (
  76. Montella, A., Chiaradonna, S., Criscuolo, G., De Martino . (2019). Development and evaluation of a web-based software for crash data collection, processing and analysis. Accident Analysis & Prevention, (130), 108-116.
  77. Montero, K., Spencer, G., Ariens, B. (2012). Smart Roads : training Indonesian workers to become road safety ambassadors in industrial and community settings. Global Health Promotion, 19(2): 19–26 (DOI: 10.1177/1757975912441226).
  78. Muslimi Mohani, Yusuf. (2007). Policies to improve safety in the road transport industry and its effect on reducing human and non-human casualties and losses in the country [In Persian]. Master's thesis. Public policy group. Faculty of Law and Political Science. University of Tehran.(
  79. Myeong, S. Choi, Y. (2010). Effects of Information Technology on Policy Decision-Making Processes: Some Evidences Beyond Rhetoric. Administration & Society, 42, (4), 441–459. (DOI: 10.1177/ 0095399710362724)
  80. Nævestad, T-O., Hesjevoll, I.S., Phillips, R.O. (2018). How can we improve safety culture in transport organizations? A review of interventions, effects and influencing factors. Transportation Research Part F, (54) 31,P. 28–46. ( j.trf.2018.01.002).
  81. New Zeland Government. (2019). ROAD TO ZERO ACTION PLAN (Action Plan 2020-2022). Ministry of Transport. (
  82. Nikolaou, P., Dimitrioub, L. (2018). Evaluation of road safety policies performance across Europe: Results from benchmark analysis for a decade. Transportation Research, Part A, (116), 232–246. (
  83. Núñez-Samudio, V., Landires, I. (2020). Public policies based on scientific evidence: child road safety. Archivos argentinos de pediatría, (118),3, 252-257. ( /publication/ 341796288_Public_policies_based_on_scientific_ evidence_child_road_safety)
  84. Onywera, V.O., Blanchard, C. (2014). Road accidents: a third burden of ‘disease’ in sub-Saharan Africa. Global Health Promotion, 20, (4), PP: 52–55. (DOI: 10.1177/1757975913502688).
  85. Oster, C.V., Strong, J.S. (2013). Analyzing road safety in the United States. Research in Transportation Economics, (43),1, 98-111.(
  86. Oz, B., Ozkan, T., Lajunen, T. (2014). Trip-focused organizational safety climate: Investigating the relationships with errors, violations and positive driver behaviours in professional driving. Transportation Research Part F, (26), 361–369. (
  87. C., Gregg. D., Gargett. D. (2012). Attitudes to road safety and its implications for public policy. Australasian Transport Research Forum(ATRF). September, Perth, Australia.(https:// 2022/03/2012_Pathak_Gregg_Gargett.pdf)(
  88. Pendakur, V., S. (2006). China: National Road Safety Law. Transportation Research Board Annual Conference, Washington, DC. (
  89. Petrov, A.I. (2022). Entropy Method of Road Safety Management. Case Study of the Russian Federation. Entropy, 24, 177. (
  90. Pugachev, I., et al. (2017). Factor Analysis of Traffic Organization and Safety Systems. Transportation Research Procedia, (20), 529 – 535. ( science/article/pii/ S2352146517300868).
  91. Racioppi, F.(ed.)., (2004). Preventing Road Traffic Injury: a public health perspective for Europe. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.
  92. Raffo, V. et al. (2013). Case study: The Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011–2020. Global Health Promotion 1757-9759; 20 (4): 20– 36. (DOI: 10.1177/1757975913502690).
  93. Rahimi, Homa. (2010). Policies to improve safety in the road transport industry and its impact on economic development in Iran [In Persian]. Master's thesis. Department of Political Science. Faculty of Law and Political Science. University of Tehran.
  94. Roberts, I. (2007). Formula One and global road safety. Journal Of The Royal Society Of Medicine, 100(8): 360-362, August. (1258/jrsm.100.8.360).
  95. Sadrai, Harir and Salehi, Alireza. (2013). Investigating the performance of road safety in the provinces of the country using the TOPSIS method [In Persian]. The 13th International Conference on Transportation and Traffic Engineering. Tehran. Retrieved from: (, (
  96. Safarpour, H., Khorasani-z, D., Soori, H., Bagheri-L., K., Ghomian, Z., Mohammadi, R. (2020). Vision Zero: Evolution History and Developing Trend in Road Safety: A Scoping Review. Trauma Monthly, 25(6), PP. 275-286.
  97. Sagberg, F., Piccinini, F.B., Engström, J. (2015). A Review of Research on Driving Styles and Road Safety. Human Factors, 57 (7), November, pp. 1248–1275.( DOI: 10.1177/0018720815591313)
  98. Schepers P., Lovegrove G., Helbich M. (2019) Urban Form and Road Safety: Public and Active Transport Enable High Levels of Road Safety. In: Nieuwenhuijsen M., Khreis H. (eds) Integrating Human Health into Urban and Transport Planning. Springer, Cham. (
  99. Shamsi, Hojjat. (2016). Transport and traffic safety problems and issues on Iranian roads. The second international conference on new research findings in engineering sciences and technology [In Persian]. Istanbul, Faraz Andishan Institute of International Knowledge. Retrieved from: (https://
  100. Sharman, A., Abhishek. (2017). Analysis of Road Safety for Pedestrians and Cyclists in Mohali City, India. International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 6(1), PP: 8-14. (DOI: 10.5923/j.ijtte.20170601.02).
  101. Shirazian, Seyed Gholamreza. (2012). Strategies for improving the country's transportation safety and the necessary legal mechanism to achieve the relevant goals [In Persian]. Research project. Tehran. Ministry of Road and Transport. Retrieved from: (
  102. Smedby, B.(ed.). (2010). Ragnar Berfenstam - ett minnesnummer Socialmedicinsk tidskrift. 87.
  103. Suri, Mahmoud. (2015). Road transport safety and climatic hazards. The first international conference on Iran's natural hazards and environmental crises, solutions and challenges [In Persian]. Ardabil Kian Plan Danesh Co. Retrieved from:(https://
  104. Svanström, L. (2011). Skaraborgs län som hemvist för socialmedicinsk säkerhetsforskning. Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, 88 (1), PP.17-21.
  105. Tay R., (2003). Resolving Some Recurring Methodological Issues in Road Safety Evaluation Models, Proceedings of the Road Safety Research, Policing and Education. Conference, September 2003, Sydney, Australia.( publication/ 27468002_Resolving_some_methodological_issues_in_Road_Safety_Evaluations_The_Victorian_TAC_campaigns_revisited).
  106. Tay, R. (2003). Effectiveness of Road Safety Advertising in Reducing Fatal Crashes in New Zealand. ANZMAC 2003 Conference Proceedings, Adelaide. ( publication/27482292).
  107. Teye-Kwadjo, E. (2017). Risk factors for road transport–related injury among pedestrians in rural Ghana: Implications for road safety education. Health Education Journal, 76(7) 880–890. (DOI: 10.1177/0017896917719736).
  108. Tiwari, G. (2018). Infrastructure Designs and Traffic Safety: the road to vision zero. International journal of injury control and safety promotion. 25(3), PP. 237-238. (doi:10.1080/17457300.2018.1486505).
  109. United Nations. (2011). Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020. Retrived from WHO website:) // ressources/documents/11337,WHO-global_plan_final.pdf(.
  110. United States Department of Transportation (DOT). (2022). National Roadway Safety Strategy. U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE Washington, DC 20590, Version 1.1. (
  111. Van den Berghe, W., Schachner, M., Sgarra, V., Christie, N.(2020). The association between national culture, road safety performance and support for policy measures. IATSS Research, (44), 3, 197-211. (
  112. Van Der Knaap, P. (2017). Positive evaluation and learning: Looking for ‘success’ in Netherlands road safety policy. Evaluation, Vol. 23(4), 432–443. (DOI: 10.1177/1356389017733341).
  113. van der Meulen. J. (2022). Road safety beyond the automobility norm? Can Swedish road safety policy escape the automobility norm and facilitate cycling instead – lessons from the Netherlands. Applied Mobilities. (DOI:10.1080/23800127.2022.2065110).
  114. Vingilis, E., Johnson, J., Rapoport, M.J., Beirness, Boase, P., Byrne, P.A., Jonah, B., Mann, R.E., Seeley, J., Wickens, C.M., Wiesenthal, D.L. (2020). Corona virus Disease 2019: What Could Be the Effects on Road Safety?. Accident Analysis and Prevention, (
  115. Walker, L., Butland, D., Connell, R.W. (2000). Boys on the Road: Masculinities, Car Culture, and Road Safety Education. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 8, (2), Winter. pp. 153-169.( jms.0802.153).
  116. Wang, C., Quddus, M., Ison, S. (2011). A spatio-temporal analysis of the impact of congestion on traffic safety on major roads in the UK. Transport metric, (2).(DOI:10.1080/18128602.2010.538871).
  117. Wang, C., Quddus, M., Ison, S. (2013). The effect of traffic and road characteristics on road safety: A review and future research direction. Safety Science, (57), 264-275. (DOI:1016/j.ssci.2013.02.012).
  118. Wegman, F., Lynam,D., Nillsson,G. (2002).SUN flower: a comparative study of the developments of road safety in Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Directorate General for Mobility and Transport, European Commission, Brussels. Retrieved from: (
  119. Wegman, F. (2017). The future of road safety: A worldwide prespective. IATSS Research, (40), 66–71. Retrieved from: ( of_road_safety_A_worldwide_perspective).
  120. Weichbrodt, J. (2015). Safety rules as instruments for organizational control, coordination and knowledge: Implications for rules management. Safety Science, (80), 221–232.( 2015.07.031).
  121. Whitelegg, J., Haq, G. (2006). Vision Zero: Adopting a target of zero for road traffic fatalities and serious injuries. Stockholm Environment Institute For the DfT Horizons Programme, Department for Transport. ) Publications/Future/vision_zero_ FinalReportMarch06.pdf(.
  122. [Accessed 06 october 2016].
  123. World Health Organization(WHO) & World Bank. (2004). In Peden, R. Scurfield, D. Sleet, D. Mohan, A. Hyder, E. Jarawan & C. Mathers (Eds.), World report on road traffic injury prevention. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  124. World Health Organization(WHO). (2015). Global Status Report on Road Safety 2015. Retrived from World Health Organization website: ( 9789241565066_eng.pdf?ua=).
  125. World Health Organization(WHO). (2018). Global Status Report on Road Safety.