Reviewing the policies and rules of the patent system in the light of the issue of climate change

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor in Intellectual Property Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. in Private Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Ph.D. Candidate of Environmental Engineering - Water and Wastewater Engineering, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Inventions are registered and supported based on the three requirements of novelty, inventive step and industrial applicability. These requirements have specific definitions and concepts which may be different from country to country. On the other hand, according to patent regulations, in certain cases, it is necessary to issue Compulsory licenses for the exploitation of patents, and in some cases, under the category of exceptions to patents, the invention can also be used without the permission of the inventor. However, the issue of climate change, which is now an important international issue, has changed many of the globally accepted infrastructure and principles and regulations. Therefore, considering the importance of patents in the development of countries, the question is whether the phenomenon of climate change can also make changes in the patent system and lead to an increase or decrease in patent issuance? And or in some way, expand the cases of free exploitation of patents? The present paper concludes with a descriptive-analytical method with a library and sometimes field research that changes in the components of the patent system and new interpretations of its regulations are not unlikely considering climate change and environmental hazards and signs of this change can be found.

Keywords


! - بهادری جهرمی، زهرا، 1395، شیوه مطلوب احراز نقض حق اختراع در حقوق ایران با نگاهی به دکترین معادل‌ها، رساله دکتری حقوق خصوصی، استاد راهنما دکتر سعید حبیبا، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران.
2 - حبیبا، سعید و بهادری جهرمی، زهرا، 1393، گام ابتکاری در اختراعات نانوفناوری، فصلنامه پژوهشنامه بازرگانی، شماره 73.
3 - الف) عزیزی مرادپور، حمید، 1391، تأملی بر محدودیت‌های حقوق دارندگان حق اختراع، پژوهش‌های حقوق تطبیقی، دوره 16، شماره 1.
4 - ب) ---------------، 1391، تأملی بر ماده 30 موافقت‌نامه تریپس و درس‌هایی از رویه قضائی سازمان جهانی تجارت، فصلنامه پژوهش حقوق خصوصی، سال اول، شماره 1. ب
5- David A. Kelly, 2005, What Constitutes a New Use of a Known Composition and Should a Patentee's Purported Objective Make Any Difference, Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal, Vol. 21, Issue 2, Art. 2.
6- Edson Beas Rodrigues, Jr, 2012, The General Exception Clauses of the TRIPS Agreement: Promoting Sustainable Development, Cambridge University Press.
7- Hayhoe, K., Edmonds, J., Kopp, R. E., LeGrande, A. N., Sanderson, B. M., Wehner, M. F., Wuebbles, D. J. ,2017, "Climate models, scenarios, and projections". In: WUEBBLES, D. J., FAHEY, D. W., HIBBARD, K. A., DOKKEN, D. J., STEWART, B. C. & MAYCOCK, T. K. (eds.) Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I. Washington, DC, USA: U.S. Global Change Research Program. 133-160.
8- IPCC, 2014, "Climate Change 2014 – Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects: Working Group II Contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report: Volume 1: Global and Sectoral Aspects", Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.
9- Mark A Lemley, Point of Novelty, 2011, Printed in U.S.A. Northwestern University Law Review Vol.  105, No.  3.
10- merriam-websterLaw Dictionary, Available at:http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/equivalent
11- Peng, J., Zheng, B., Chu, Z., Wang, X., 2020, "Attaining Sustainable Water Resource Utilization in Lake Basins Using Progressive Operational Scenario Analysis”, Water Resources Management, 34(3).
12- Rosenzweig, C., Solecki, W. D., Hammer, S. A., Mehrotra, S., 2011, "Climate change and cities: First assessment report of the urban climate change research network", Cambridge University Press.
13- Sivaramjani Thambisetty, 2008, Legal Transplants in Patent Law:  Why Utility is the New Industrial Applicability, LSE Law, Society and Economy Working Papers 6/2008 London School of Economics and Political Science Law Department.
14- Tonmoy, F. N., Rissik, D., Palutikof, J. P., 2019, “A three-tier risk assessment process for climate change adaptation at a local scale". Climatic Change, 153(4), 539-557.
15- White, R., 2019, “Risk Analysis for Critical Infrastructure Protection". In: GRITZALIS, D., THEOCHARIDOU, M. & STERGIOPOULOS, G. (eds.) Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience: Theories, Methods, Tools and Technologies. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
16- World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), 2003, Guide To The Copyright And Related Right Treaties Administered By WIPO And Glossary Of Copyright And Related Right Terms, Genève.
17- Zouboulis, A., Tolkou, A., 2015, "Effect of Climate Change in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Reviewing the Problems and Solutions". In: SHRESTHA, S., ANAL, A. K., SALAM, P. A. & VAN DER VALK, M. (eds.) Managing Water Resources under Climate Uncertainty: Examples from Asia, Europe, Latin America, and Australia. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 197-220