Designing Policies for Improving Multisided Platform Markets’ Activity in Iran

Document Type : Research Article


1 Assistant Professor at Technology Studies Institute, Tehran, Iran

2 Master of Technology Management, Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor in Niroo Research Institute, Tehran, Iran



Designing business models based on value-added creation through connecting customers in different markets due to network and spillover effects is important, because of improving social services, job creation, and development of communication technologies. In recent years and due to the development of digital technologies, data-driven platforms as a ground for interaction between different groups in multisided markets have experienced significant growth. So, the primary question of the research is that concerning several challenges of platform development, what policy changes can be suggested for the development of multisided markets’ activity in Iran? So, a qualitative research Method based on semi-structured interviews has been used for data collection and theme-oriented content analysis. In this article, five integrating themes include designing protection and security patterns, organizing the competition and determining monopoly conditions, structuring the juridical model for crimes in platforms, licensing and regulation, and supporting financial and commercial systems are designed and suitable policies for multisided markets in Iran is provided.


  1. Akartuna, E. A., Johnson, S. D., & Thornton, A. (2022). Preventing the money laundering and terrorist financing risks of emerging technologies: An international policy Delphi study. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 179, 121632.
  2. Avdasheva, S. B., & Korneeva, D. V. (2019). Does competition enforcement prevent competitive strategies of digital platforms: Evidence from BRICS. Российский журнал менеджмента, 17(4), 547-568.
  3. Boudreau, K. J., & Hagiu, A. (2009). Platform rules: multi-sided platforms as regulators. Platforms, markets and innovation, 1, 163-191.
  4. BRICS (2019). BRICS in the digital economy - competition policy on practice (First Report by the competition authorities working group on digital economy).
  5. Busch, C. (2020). Self-regulation and regulatory intermediation in the platform economy. In The Role of the EU in Transnational Legal Ordering. Edward Elgar Publishing.
  6. Cai, J. (2020). The sharing economy and China’s antimonopoly law: from the Didi case to regulatory challenges. Asia Pacific Law Review, 28(1), 159-178.
  7. Caillaud, B., & Jullien, B. (2003). Chicken & egg: Competition among intermediation service providers. RAND journal of Economics, 309-328.
  8. Cannon, S., & Summers, L. H. (2014). How Uber and the sharing economy can win over regulators. Harvard business review, 13(10), 24-28.
  9. Cseres, K. (2020). Integrate or separate: institutional design for the enforcement of competition law and consumer law. Amsterdam Law School Research Paper, (2013-03), 2013-01.
  10. Demary, V. (2015). Competition in the sharing economy (No. 19/2015). IW policy paper.
  11. Ducci, F. (2018). Competition law and policy issues in the sharing economy. Law and the “Sharing Economy”: Regulating Online Market Platforms, 295-318.
  12. Eisenmann, T. R., Parker, G., & Van Alstyne, M. (2009). Opening platforms: How, when and why. Platforms, markets and innovation, 6, 131-162.
  13. Eisenmann, T., Parker, G., & Van Alstyne, M. (2011). Platform envelopment. Strategic management journal, 32(12), 1270-1285.
  14. Evans, D. S. (2012). Governing bad behavior by users of multi-sided platforms. Berkeley Tech. LJ, 27, 1201.
  15. Evans, D. S., & Schmalensee, R. (2017). Applying the Rule of Reason to Two-Sided Platform Businesses. U. Miami Bus. L. Rev., 26, 1.
  16. Flores, O., & Rayle, L. (2017). How cities use regulation for innovation: the case of Uber, Lyft and Sidecar in San Francisco. Transportation research procedia, 25, 3756-3768.
  17. Gawer, A., & Cusumano, M. A. (2014). Industry platforms and ecosystem innovation. Journal of product innovation management, 31(3), 417-433.
  18. Godlewska, M. (2019). Competition Mechanisms in the Sharing Economy. e-mentor, 80(3), 51-57.
  19. Gupta, P. (2020). Competition policy in the age of ‘Big Tech’: Assessing the EU’s approach.
  20. Guo, Y., Li, X., & Zeng, X. (2019). Platform competition in the sharing economy: Understanding how ride-hailing services influence new car purchases. Journal of Management Information Systems, 36(4), 1043-1070.
  21. Hagiu, A., & Wright, J. (2015). Multi-sided platforms. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 43, 162-174.
  22. Henama, U. S., & Sifolo, P. P. S. (2017). Uber: The south africa experience. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 6(2), 1-10.
  23. Hertog, J. D. (2010). Review of Economic Theories of Regulation Discussion Paper Series/Utrecht School of Economics Tjalling C. Koopmans Research Institute, 10(18).
  24. ISTI (2019). Regulation and Innovation: Rearranging Institutional Basis for Innovation Ecosystem, Vice-Presidency for Science and Technology {In Persian}.
  25. Kayyal, K., & Albadvi, A. (2018). Strategies for setting up a platform business within the banking and payment industry. Innovation Management Journal, 7(2), 142-168. {In Persian}.
  26. King, N, and Horrocks, C. (2010). Interviews in Qualitative Research. London: Sage.
  27. Mayya, R., & Li, Z. (2021). Growing Platforms by Adding Complementors Without Consent: Evidence from On-Demand Food Delivery Platforms. Available at SSRN 3945088.
  28. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook: SAGE Publication.
  29. Narimani, M., Karimmian, Z., & Hosseini, S. J. (2020). An Institutional Framework for Regulating New Business Models: A Case Study of Application-based Transportation. Public Policy, 6(1), 11-35. {In Persian}.
  30. Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business model generation: a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers (Vol. 1). John Wiley & Sons.
  31. Parker, G. G., & Van Alstyne, M. W. (2005). Two-sided network effects: A theory of information product design. Management science, 51(10), 1494-1504.
  32. Parker, G., & Van Alstyne, M. (2012). A digital postal platform: Definitions and a roadmap. MIT Center for Digital Business, Working Paper, 296.
  33. Posen, H. A. (2015). Ridesharing in the sharing economy: Should regulators impose Uber regulations on Uber. Iowa L. Rev., 101, 405-433.
  34. Robertson, V. H. (2020). Antitrust law and digital markets: a guide to the European competition law experience in the digital economy. Available at SSRN 3631002.
  35. Rochet, J. C., & Tirole, J. (2003). Platform competition in two-sided markets. Journal of the European economic association, 1(4), 990-1029.
  36. Scott Morton, F., Bouvier, P., Ezrachi, A., Jullien, B., Katz, R., Kimmelman, G., ... & Morgenstern, J. (2019). Market Structure and Antitrust Subcommittee Report. George J. Stigler Center for the Study of the Economy and the State, The University of Chicago Booth School of Business, Committee for the Study of Digital Platforms.
  37. Shapiro, C., Varian, H. R., & Carl, S. (1998). Information rules: A strategic guide to the network economy. Harvard Business Press.
  38. Soltanzadeh, J., Elyasi, M., & Narimani, M. (2022). Competition Law in the Age of Platform Businesses (A Multi-Case Studies). Journal of Management Improvement, 15(4), 7-37. {In Persian}.
  39. Soltanzadeh, J., Elyasi, M., & Narimani, M. (2021). Regulatory Stalemates Analysis of Iranian Ride-hailing Platform Business by the Advocacy Coalition Framework. Journal of Management Improvement, 10(3), 153-180. {In Persian}.
  40. Strowel, A., & Vergote, W. (2016). Digital platforms: to regulate or not to regulate. op. cit, 11.
  41. Sundararajan, A. (2017). The sharing economy: The end of employment and the rise of crowd-based capitalism. MIT press.
  42. Van Alstyne, M. W., Parker, G. G., & Choudary, S. P. (2016). Pipelines, platforms, and the new rules of strategy. Harvard business review, 94(4), 54-62.
  43. Vinogradov, E., Leick, B., & Kivedal, B. K. (2020). An agent-based modelling approach to housing market regulations and Airbnb-induced tourism. Tourism Management, 77, 104004, 1-9.
  44. Vitković, D. (2016). The sharing economy: regulation and the EU competition law. Global Antitrust Review, (9), 78-118.
  45. Wirtz, J., & Tang, C. (2016). Uber: Competing as market leader in the US versus being a distant second in China. SERVICES MARKETING: People Technology Strategy, 626-632.
  46. Yarmohammadi, M., Rezvani, M., & Alborzi, M. (2017). Exploring the goals and enablers of participating in the platform ecosystem from the supply-side innovators’ perspective in software industry: small companies in Tehran. Innovation Management Journal, 6(2), 65-86. {In Persian}.
  47. Yu, M., Cheng, M., Yu, Z., Tan, J., & Li, Z. (2020). Investigating Airbnb listings’ amenities relative to hotels. Current Issues in Tourism, 1-18.
  48. Zhang, C. (2019). China's new regulatory regime tailored for the sharing economy: The case of Uber under Chinese local government regulation in comparison to the EU, US, and the UK. Computer Law & Security Review, 35(4), 462-475.