Nanotechnology policy durability in Iran; Qualitative analysis of the policy cycle

Document Type : Research Article


1 Assistant Professor, Innovation Policy and Future Studies Research Group, Technology Studies Institute, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student of Technology Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


The long-term focused &systemic policy-making of nanotechnology in Iran has been carried out since 2001 &it seems that it will continue for at least another decade. Iran Nanotechnology Innovation Council (INIC), as the particular body, has been responsible for the development of nanotechnology in the country. The implementation of two short-term programs in the years 2001 to 2005 &the formulation &implementation of the first &second 10-year plans from 2005 are indications of the existence of a durable planning system in this field, which is important for planners &policy researchers to examine &scrutinize. The purpose of this article is to report applied qualitative policy research to narrate the local experience of policy-making &to identify &explain the strengths &factors of durability &sustainability of this experience. The primary data sources of the research are individual &group interviews generated by INIC, with two types of stakeholders, including planning executives (inside INIC) &informed experts (outside INIC). A thematic analysis methodology was used to process the data. The article describes the policy process of nanotechnology in Iran based on the three-stage policy cycle model, including policy formulation, implementation, &evaluation. It then explains the key factors influencing the durability of this process.


  1. Alvani, S., & Sharifzadeh, F. (2008). The public policymaking process (sixth edition). Tehran: Allameh Tabatabaie University Press [in Persian].
  2. Bahadori, A. (2018). Qualitative data research of the grounded theory, "coding" &its importance, steps &method of implementation in internship in Farhangian University. Quarterly of New Strategies of Teacher Education, 4(5), 69-88 [in Persian].
  3. Flick, A. (2008). An introduction to qualitative research. (Translated by: H. Jalili,). Tehran: Ney Press [in Persian].
  4. Special headquarters for nanotechnology development. (2017). A collection of interviews with managers, executives &experts of the nanotechnology development program (2011-2017). Available on the website of Nano Development Pattern. Available online at: [in Persian].
  5. Special headquarters for nanotechnology development. (2005). future strategy; Ten-year document of nanotechnology development (2005-2015). Tehran [in Persian].
  6. Special headquarters for nanotechnology development. (2013). The report of the meeting of experts about nanotechnology plans in the country. Not published [in Persian].
  7. Special headquarters for nanotechnology development. (2017). The document on the expansion of the use of nanotechnology in the horizon of 2025. Secretariat of the Special headquarters for nanotechnology development [in Persian].
  8. Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution. (2010). Comprehensive scientific map of the country. Tehran [in Persian].
  9. Tayebi Abolhasani, S. (2019). An introduction to research methods: standard procedures for qualitative data analysis. Science &Technology Policy Quarterly, 9(2), 67-94 [in Persian].
  10. Anderson, J. E. (2014). Public policymaking. Cengage Learning.
  11. Arnold, E. (2004). Evaluating research &innovation policy: a systems world needs systems evaluations. Research Evaluation, 17-31, (1).
  12. Bahmer, L. E. (2020). Chutes, ladders, snakes &surprises: policy durability &policy flexibility in EU energy &climate governance based on the governance regulation. Florence: European University Institute.
  13. Bovens, M. P. (2006) The politics of policy evaluation . در The Oxford handbook of public policy. Oxford University Press.
  14. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology.
  15. Hall, P. A. (1993). Policy paradigms, social learning, &the state: the case of economic policymaking in Britain . Comparative politics, 257-296.
  16. Howlett, M., Ramesh, M., & Perl, A.(2009). Studying public policy: Policy cycles &policy subsystems. Oxford University Press.
  17. Jann, W. a. (2017). Theories of the policy cycle. در Handbook of public policy analysis(69-88). Routledge.
  18. Jordan, A. J (2020). Durable by design?: Policy feedback in a changing climate. Cambridge University Press.
  19. Jordan, A., & Matt, E. (2014). Designing policies that intentionally stick: Policy feedback in a changing climate. Policy Sciences, (3)47, 227-247.
  20. Lengrand, L. &.(2006). Smart Innovation: A Practical Guide to Evaluating Innovation Programmes . Brussel: European Commision.
  21. Ritchie, J. a.(2002). Qualitative data analysis for applied policy research The qualitative researcher’s companion 573.2002 (2002): 305-29. در Analysing Qualitative Data (ص. 305-29). London &New York: Routledge.
  22. Saldaña, J(2021). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Sage.
  23. Sanderson, I.(2002). Evaluation, Policy Learning &Evidence-Based Policy Making. Public administration,1-22., 80(1).
  24. Schattschneider, E. E.(1935). Politics, pressures &the tariff. New York: Prentice-Hall.
  25. Sidney, M. S. (2017). Policy formulation: design &tools. در Handbook of public policy analysis (105-114). Routledge.
  26. Soltani, A., Tabatabaeian, S., Hanafizadeh, P., & Soofi, J. (2011). An evaluation scheme for nanotechnology policies. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 13(12), 7303-7312.
  27. Springer, J. F.(2017). Introduction to Policy Research. در Applied Policy Research (3-19). Routledge.
  28. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques &Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Sage Publications, Inc.
  29. Sutton, R (1999). THE POLICY PROCESS: AN OVERVIEW. London: Overseas Development Institute.
  30. Thompson, F. J. (2012). Medicaid politics: Federalism, policy durability, &health reform. Georgetown University Press.
  31. Wollmann, H.. (2017) Policy evaluation &evaluation research . در Handbook of public policy analysi.(419-428). Routledge.