Identification of Government Sector Strategies Regarding to NGOs along Public Policy Process in Iran; Case study: Environment and Natural Resources Area

Document Type : Research Article


1 Prof. of Public Administration, University of Tehran

2 Associate Prof. of Communications, Allameh Tabatabai University

3 Assistant Prof. of Human Resources Management, University of Tehran

4 Ph.D. Student in Public Policy, University of Tehran


Civil society, along with private sector and government, is the third pillar of development in good governance. Necessity of interaction between government sector (including the state and the assembly) and nonprofit sector, as the driving force of civil society, is undeniable. Various bodies and organizations of government sector interact with NGOs at problem identification, policy development, execution and evaluation stages. The purpose of this paper is to identify strategies of government sector regarding NGOs to manage the relationship throughout the policy process. Findings of multiple case study of the two parties’ relationships, revealed that government sector apply five types of strategies: confrontational, indifferent, hypocrite, cooperative and fundamental. In order to reach effective interaction, government should move from the first three strategies to the last two ones.


الف) فارسی
1-       الوانی، س. (1388)، حکمرانی خوب شبکه‌ای از کنش‌گران جامعه مدنی، مجله مدیریت توسعه و تحول، ش 1، ص 5-1.
2-       رعنایی، ح،  مرتضوی، م. (1391)، تفکر شبکه‌ای در اداره امور کشور، تهران، مرکز پژوهش‌های مجلس شورای اسلامی.
3-       سعیدی، م. (1372)، درآمدی بر مشارکت سازمان‌های غیر دولتی، تهران، سمت.
4-       سعیدی، م. (1382)، مشارکت سازمان‌های غیر دولتی در برنامه‌های میان‌مدت توسعه در ایران، نامه پژوهش فرهنگی، ش 6، ص 129-150.
5-       عطارزاده، م. (1377)، دولت، جامعه مدنی و امنیت در جمهوری اسلامی ایران، مطالعات راهبردی، ش 2، ص 128-95.
6-       علیزاده، م. (1387)، جامعه مدنی قدرت و توسعه، ماهنامه مهر، ش 8.
7-       قلی پور، ر. (1387)، حکمرانی خوب و الگوی مناسب دولت، تهران، مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام، مرکز تحقیقات استراتژیک دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی.
8-       محمدپور، ا. (1392)، روش تحقیق کیفی: ضد روش؛ مراحل و رویه‌های عملی در روش‌شناسی کیفی، تهران، جامعه‌شناسان.
9-       مقیمی، م. (1389)، کارآفرینی در نهادهای جامعه مدنی: پژوهشی در سازمان‌های غیر دولتی «NGOs» ایران، تهران، موسسه انتشارات و چاپ دانشگاه تهران.
10-     همایون کاتوزیان، م. (1380)، تضاد دولت و ملت: نظریه تاریخ و سیاست در ایران، تهران، نشر نی.
ب) انگلیسی
11- Aesborne, D., & Gaebler, T. (1992), Reinventing Government. New York: Addison Wesley.
12- Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006), Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology. Qualitative Reseach in Psychology, 3, 77-101.
13- Bryant, R. L. (2001), Explaining State-Environmental NGO Relations in the Philippines and Indonesia. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 22(1), 15-37.
14- ChiaChian, M. A. (2003), Structural Impediments of the Civil Society Project in Iran: National and Global Dimensions. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 44(1), 19-50.
15- Clarck, J. (1993), The Relationship between the State and the Voluntary Sector. World Bank, Human Resource Development and Operations Policy.
16- Clark, J. (1992), Democratising development: NGOs and the State. Development in Practice, 2(3), 151-162.
17- Coffman, J. & Beer T. (2015).The Advocacy Strategy Framework: A Tool for Articulating an Advocacy Theory of Change. Center for Evaluation and Innovation.
18- Commuri, C. (1995), State Repression and Limits of Voluntary Action: Case Study of the 'Save Narmada Movement' in India. Annual ARNOVA Conference. Celveland.
19- Coston, J. M. (1998), A Model and Typology of Government-NGO Relationships. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 27(3), 358-382.
20- Doh, J. P., & Teegen, H. (2003), Globalization and NGOs: Transfroming Business, Government and Society. Westport, CT: Praeger Publications.
21- Elliot-Teague, G. L. (2007), NGOs in Policymaking in Tanzania: The Relationships of Groups Characteristics, Political Participation and Policy Outcomes. PhD Thesis: Indiana University.
22- Fisher, J. (1995), Government Policies Towards NGOs in the Third World: Political Context and the Growth of Civil Society. Cleveland: Annual Arnova Conference.
23- Foster, K. W. (2002), Embedded within State Agencies: Business Associations in Yanati. The China Journal, 47, 41-65.
24- Gary, I. (1996), Confrontation, Cooperation or Cooptation: NGOs and the Ghanaian State during Structural Adjustment. Review of African Political Economy, 23(68), 149-168.
25- Gubster, P. (2002), The Impact of NGOs on State and Non-State Relations in the Middle East. Middle East Policy, 4(1), 139-148.
26- Guest, G., MacQueen, K. M., & Namey, E. E. (2012), Applied Thematic Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.
27- Hague, S. M. (2002), The Changing Balance of Power Between the Government and NGOs in Bangladash. International Political Science Review, 23(4), 411-435.
28- Heurlin, C. (2010), Governing Civil Society: The Political Logic of NGO-State Relations Under Dictatorship. Voluntas, 21, 220-239.
29- Kabdiyeva, A., & Dixon, J. (2014), Collaboration between the State and NGOs in Kazakhstan. International Journal of Community and Cooperative Studies, 1(2), 27-41.
30- Korkut, O. (2007), Participatory Policy-Making, Participatory Civil Society: A Key for Dissolving Elite Rule in New Democracies in the Era of Globalization. World Futures: The Journal of New Paradigm Research, 63(5-6), 340-352.
31- Kramer, R. M. (1981), Voluntary Agencies in the Walfare State. Berkley: University of California Press.
32- Kuhnle, S. (2010), Commentary: What Role for the Third Sector in European Public Policy-Making? Journal of Civil Society, 6(1), 71-74.
33- Kvale, S. (1996), Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. Thousand Oaks-California: Sage Publications.
34- Lewis, D. (2013), Civil Society and the Authoritarian State: Cooperation, Contestation and Discourse. Journal of Civil Society, 9(3), 325-340.
35- Lorgen, C. (1998), Dancing with the State: The Role of NGOs in Health Care and Health Policy. Journal of International Development, 10, 323-339.
36- Marchetti, R. (2013), Civil Society-Government Synergy and Normative Power Italy. The International Sectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs, 48(4), 102-118.
37- Najam, A. (2000), The Four C's of Third Sector-Government Relations: Cooperation, Confrontation, Complementary and Cooperation. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 10(4), 375-396.
38- Packdell, A. A. (2009), Interorganizational Collaboration: An Exploratory Study of Collaborative Relationships within a Statewide Leadership Project. Phd Thesis.
39- Pollard, S. (2014), The State and Civil Society in the Arab Middle East. Phd Dissertation: Western Michigan University.
40- Ramantah, R., & Ebrahim, A. (2010), Strategies and Tactics in NGO-Government Relations Insights from Slum Housing in Mumbai. NonProfit Management & Leadership, 21(1), 21-42.
41- Riker, J. V. (1995), Contending Perspective for Interpreting Government-NGO Relations in South and Southeast Asia: Constraints, Challenges and the Search for Common Ground in Rural Development. In N. Heyzer, J. V. Riker, & A. B. Quizon, Government-NGO Relations in Asia (pp. 91-130), Kuala Lumpur: Asian and Pacific Development Center.
42- Roulston, K. (2001), Data Analysis and Theorizing as Ideology. Qualitative Research, 1(3), 279-302.
43- UK Cabinet Office. (2010), The Compact. London.
44- United States Agency for International Development. (2012), CSO Sustainability Index for Afghanistan. USAID.
45- World Bank. (1995), Working with NGOs. World Bank, NGO Unit.
46- Young, D. R. (2000), Alternative Models of Government-Nonprofit Relations: Theoretical and International Perspective. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 29(1), 149-172.
47- Ziegler, C. E. (2010), Civil Society, Political Stability and State Power in Central Asia: Cooperation and Contestation. Democratization, 17(5), 795-825.