Review and explanation the applicability of research in policy making: a bridge between theory and practice

Document Type : Research Article


Assistant professor of science and technology policy, IRANDOC


The relationship between research and policy making is one of great interest in the public policy field, especially since a large number of actors seek to influence the government (lobbyists, academic researchers, NGOs). These partnerships are not without difficulties, caused mainly by the many differences that remain between the worlds of researchers and policymakers. So, in addition to express the incompatibility aspects among the researchers and policy-makers, the barriers of interaction between the research and policy have been identified by documentary study. The results show these barriers can be summarized in four categories as: Ineffective communication among policy makers and researchers, non applicability of research in policy making, Lack of capacity to conduct policy research and Problems in the dissemination of research findings. Finally, recommendations for resolving these problems are presented that are useful for policy-makers and researchers.


1- Almeida, C., & Báscolo, E. (2006). Use of research results in policy decision-making, formulation, and implementation: a review of the literature. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 22, S7-S19.
2- AO, G. B. (2009). Challenges of Evidence‑Based Policy making.
3- Calmfors, L. (2009). The role of research and researchers in economic policy making: some reflections based on personal experiences. Kansantaloudellinen aikakauskirja (Finnish Economic Journal), 1.
4- Choi, B. C., Pang, T., Lin, V., Puska, P., Sherman, G., Goddard, M. & Clottey, C. (2005). Can scientists and policy makers work together? Journal of Epidemiology and community health, 59(8), 632-637.
5- Clarence, E. (2002). Technocracy reinvented: the new evidence based policy movement. Public Policy and Administration, 17(3), 1-11.
6- Cobinet Office. (1999). Modernizing government white paper. London. UK: The stationery office.
7- Choi, B., McQueen, D., & Rootman, I. (2003). Bridging the gap between scientists and decision makers. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 57(12), 918.
8- Dukeshire, S., & Thurlow, J. (2002). Understanding the link between research and policy. Rural Communities Impacting Policy Project, 1-20.
9- Edwards, M. (2005). Social Science Research and Public Policy: Narrowing the Divide1. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 64(1), 68-74.
11- Gray, J. A. (1997). Evidence-based healthcare: how to make health policy and management decisions. London: Churchill Livingstone, 53.
12- Hill, L. W. (2007). Political and Academic Linkages in Public Sector Policymaking. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 11(1), 221-231.
13- Innvær, S., Vist, G., Trommald, M., & Oxman, A. (2002). Health policy-makers' perceptions of their use of evidence: a systematic review. Journal of health services research & policy, 7(4), 239-244.
14- Jewell, C. J., & Bero, L. A. (2008). “Developing good taste in evidence”: facilitators of and hindrances to evidence‐informed health policymaking in state government. Milbank Quarterly, 86(2), 177-208.
15- Lomas, J. (2002). Connecting research and policy. Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 1(1), 140-144.
16- Lin, V. (2004). From public health research to health promotion policy: On the 10 major contradictions. Sozial-und Präventivmedizin, 49(3), 179-184.
17- Marston, G., & Watts, R. (2003). Tampering with the evidence: a critical appraisal of evidence-based policy making. The drawing board: An Australian review of public affairs, 3(3), 143-163.
18- McQueen, D. V. (2001). Strengthening the evidence base for health promotion. Health promotion international, 16(3), 261-268.
19- McDonald, R., & Harrison, S. (2004). The micro politics of clinical guidelines: an empirical study. Policy & Politics, 32(2), 223-239.
20- Nutley, S., & Webb, J. (2000). Evidence and the policy process. What works, 13-41.
21- Nutley, S., Davies, H., & Walter, I. (2002). Evidence based policy and practice: Cross sector lessons from the UK. ESRC UK Centre for evidence based policy and practice: working paper, 9.
22- Ozga, J. (2004). From research to policy and practice: some issues in knowledge transfer.
23- Parsons, W. (2002). From muddling through to muddling up-evidence based policy making and the modernisation of British Government. Public policy and administration, 17(3), 43-60.
24- Pang, T. (2003). Filling the gap between knowing and doing. Nature, 426(6965), 383-383.
25- Sanderson, I. (2002). Evaluation, policy learning and evidence‐based policy making. Public administration, 80(1), 1-22.
26- Scott, C. (2005). Measuring up to the measurement problem: the role of statistics in evidence-based policy making. London School of Economics.
27- Smith, M. (1997). Knowledge Broker Initiative: Linking the creators and users of knowledge. International Development Research Centre (IDRC). At http://idrinfo. idrc. ca/archive/reportsintra/pdfs/1997e/112225. htm accessed on, 23(10), 06.
28- Soare, L., & Student, M. A. (2013). Creating a Linkage Between Academic Research and Policy making. EUROPOLITY, 89.
29- UNCTAD. (2006). Research-based policy making: bridging the gap between researchers and policy makers. Workshop on trade policy analysis, Geneva, 11 - 15 September 2006.